That's a very good specific that we need to consider when designing this game ... How much of European culture would the Aztecs accept, and how much would they reject?
Based on how other tribes reacted, we have a few guidelines. It's safe to say that they would welcome Europe's technology, as everyone else did....
As for the culture as a whole, it would purely depend on the degree of relatively friendly interaction. Had Velasques had his way and replaced Cortez, it's very likely that a trade relation would have developed resulting in the Aztec accepting a good portion of the Spanish culture. (For reference, French and English influence on the Cherokee, Muskogee Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw and Choctaw ... the classic "civilized tribes" in the United States, who have done pretty well for themselves by strategically assimilating.) In contrast, had Cortez continued his little war but failed to take over, it would have probably gone the other way and resulted in wholesale hatred of everything European (Refer to Mapuche in Chile, and the Sioux Nation in the United States, as well as the Zulu wars in Africa). This is not an absolute certainty, as there were rather strong conflicts of interest particularly in religion that could have influenced the pattern, but it's a good general rule.
(Note that cultural assimilation probably takes longer than the scope of this game. It took more than a hundred years for the Cherokee to drift from looking like a bunch of indians to looking like a bunch of white plantation owners.)
As for the comparison to Marx and the revolutions in Europe ... conditions of the industrial revolution meant that some type of violent economic rebellions were inevitable. Marx was a detail - the guy who wrote down the version that, as history would have it, was then used as a standard when those revolutions came. Revolt by workers was about as hard to predict as the sunrise (which is why governments and industrialists were caught completely off guard... although squirrels and other small animals probably realized it was coming). That's what I mean that certain events are very predictable - the exact details are always different, but the pattern usually doesn't take a lot to foresee.